Centrifugal pumps are dynamic pumps that move fluids through a system using one or more impellers. They are the most common type of pump because of the simplicity and effectiveness of their design and operation. Because they are the most familiar, they also tend to cost less than other types of pumps. Compared to positive displacement pumps, they provide higher flow rates and lower pressures.

Pump construction

Centrifugal pumps consist of a set of rotating vanes called an impeller. The rotary vanes are typically enclosed within a housing or casing, and are used to impart energy to a fluid through centrifugal force. The pump has two main parts: a rotating element that includes an impeller and a shaft, and a stationary element made up of a casing (volute), stuffing box and bearings.

Pump operation

Centrifugal pumps operate using kinetic energy to move fluid, utilizing an impeller and a circular pump casing. A vacuum is created in the pump, which draws fluid to the impeller by suction. The impeller produces liquid velocity and the casing forces the liquid to discharge from the pump, converting velocity to pressure. This is accomplished by offsetting the impeller in the casing and by maintaining a close clearance between the impeller and the casing at the cutwater. By forcing fluid through without cupping it, centrifugal pumps can achieve very high flow rates.

Learn more about centrifugal pump types, features and applications on the GlobalSpec website.

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